Intravenous lipid emulsion is increasingly being used as an adjunct in the management of toxicity caused by lipophilic (fat-soluble) drugs that are cardiotoxic (e.g. bupivacaine) or neurotoxic (e.g. permethrin). The Veterinary Poisons Information Service recommends that intravenous lipid emulsion be considered for any animal at risk of serious toxicity after exposure to a lipophilic compound. This module summarises what is known about this treatment, the uncertainties, and the practical aspects of using it.